Growth in overall lending by U

Accommodating monetary policy

Instead, any additional funds are invested in the stock market, pushing up stock prices. Distinguishing between appropriate and excessive risk-taking is difficult, however. But these spillovers could also reflect shifts in investor preferences for risk.

National Bureau of Economic Research

National Bureau of Economic Research, April. We will continue to monitor investor behavior closely, both domestically and internationally. These data suggest that a tougher regulatory environment may have made U. When money is easily accessible through banks, the money supply in the economy increases. However, some pockets of increased risk-taking by banks and other investors are observable in domestic markets, such as leveraged loans.

Such spillovers could merely reflect investor responses to changing differentials between rates of return abroad and in the United States. On the other hand, people and businesses tend to save less when the economy is stimulated due to the low savings interest rates offered by banks. For this reason, most central banks alternate between policies of cheap money and tight money in varying degrees to encourage growth while keeping inflation under control. This makes borrowing easy for business, which stimulates investment and expansion of operations. Federal Reserve Board or another central bank to stimulate its nation's economy.

But it is important to recognize that portfolio reallocations that seem relatively small for U. Recent research by Board staff, using a database of loans primarily to U.

And, of course, a strong U. Even relatively small changes in these U. Although emerging market bonds remain a relatively small proportion of the aggregate U. To increase the supply of money in the economy, the Federal Reserve can also purchase Treasuries on the open market to infuse capital into a weakening economy. And on the international front, there has been a notable increase in syndicated loan originations.

When businesses can easily borrow money, they have more funds to expand operations and hire more workers, which means that the unemployment rate will decrease. And the dollar's role as the world's primary reserve, transaction, and funding currency requires us to consider global developments to help ensure our own financial stability. With unconventional tools, the scale and scope of these effects were difficult to predict ex ante.

Growth in overall lending by U.

We will continue to monitor investor

Another area in which to look for links between low interest rates and risk-taking is in cross-border securities purchases. Together, these results suggest a potential spillover from accommodative U. Some shift to safe assets is also seen in U.

European Central Bank, June. But to the recipient countries, these holdings can account for a large fraction of their bond markets. Likewise, a reassessment of risk-return tradeoffs could disrupt financing for projects that are dependent on the willingness of investors to participate in global syndicated loan markets.

Such risk-taking can show up in domestic financial markets, in the international investments of U. Many studies of the pre-crisis period document the pro-cyclical nature of bank lending and leverage, and the buildup of risk-taking and leverage by banks. Ex post, these portfolio reallocations delivered a higher return to U.